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Doctors Hospital of Augusta
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Conditions InDepth: Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD)

Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) involves the 2 joints that attach the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull. These 2 joints allow the mouth to open and close, and are located directly in front of your ears.

There are 3 types of disorders

  • Myofascial pain involving the muscles that control jaw function.
  • Joint derangement, such as a displaced disc, dislocated jaw, or injury to the bone.
  • Arthritis of the temporomandibular joint.
Adult Skull Showing Temporomandibular Joint
Adult Skull Showing TMJ and Muscles
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

You may have TMD if:

  • The temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are chronically inflamed and sore.
  • The muscles that work the temporomandibular joints are regularly in spasm.
  • The cushioning disc that should rest between the temporomandibular joint and the skull becomes worn out or displaced.
  • You have limited movement of your mandible.
  • Improper bite or malpositioned jaws
  • You have clicking in the TMJ during motion.

The exact cause of TMD is unknown. Some people have had accidents or injuries involving their jaw, but many others have had no such incident. Some of the possible causes include:

  • Grinding the teeth or clenching the jaw in response to stress—bruxism
  • Arthritis of the temporomandibular joint
  • History of injury or trauma to the joint
  • Facial bone defects
  • Misalignments of the jaw or of the bite

Enlargement of TMJ With Jaw Open
Enlargement of TMJ with Open Jaw
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

TMD symptoms may originate within the joint itself or from the muscles that surround the joint. The treatment of these 2 variants of TMD may differ.

What are the risk factors for TMD?What are the symptoms of TMD?How is TMD diagnosed?What are the treatments for TMD?Are there screening tests for TMD?How can I reduce my risk of TMD?What questions should I ask my doctor?What is it like to live with TMD?Where can I get more information about TMD?

Revision Information

  • Temporomandibular disorders. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aaoms.org/images/uploads/pdfs/tmj%5Fdisorders.pdf. Published 2013. Accessed February 22, 2017.

  • Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114703/Temporomandibular-joint-TMJ-dysfunction. Updated May 11, 2015. Accessed February 22, 2017.

  • TMJ. American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery website. Available at: http://www.entnet.org/content/tmj. Updated December 2010. Accessed February 22, 2017.

  • TMJ. Mouth Healthy—American Dental Association website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/t/tmj. Accessed February 22, 2017.

  • TMJ (temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders). National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at: https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/oralhealth/Topics/TMJ/TMJDisorders.htm. Updated April 2015. Accessed February 22, 2017.