Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
(Crib Death; SIDS)
- Abnormalities in a section of the brain that controls breathing during sleep and waking
- Abnormalities in the control of heart rhythm
- Changes in how serotonin, a neurotransmitter, functions in the brain
- Changes in some components of the immune system
- Inadequate arousal response to breathing obstruction or asphyxia—a lack of oxygen or excess carbon dioxide in the body caused by interruption of breathing; may cause unconsciousness
|Area of the brain involved in regulation of breathing.|
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- Low birth weight
- Delayed fetal growth
- History of SIDS death in a sibling
- History of an acute life-threatening event
- Previous incident of unexplained severe apnea—when breathing is repeatedly interrupted and requires resuscitation
- Sleeping on the stomach or side rather than back
Other risk factors are more general and include:
- Smoking during pregnancy or in a house where the baby is sleeping
- Alcohol , excessive caffeine, opiate, or cocaine use during pregnancy
- Mother's age—younger than 20 during first pregnancy
- Black, Native American, and Alaskan Native families
- Sex: male
- History of anemia or a urinary tract infection while pregnant
- No or late prenatal care
- Premature birth
- Recent infection and/or fever
- Cold weather in late fall or winter
- Low socioeconomic status or low level of education
- Co-sleeping in parents room
- Loose covers and blankets
- Assessment of the death scene
- Review of the baby and family's medical histories
- Get prenatal care early and regularly.
- Do not smoke, drink alcohol, or use drugs while pregnant.
Make sure anyone else caring for your child is also aware of these recommendations.
- Babies less than one year old should sleep on their back. Do not allow a young baby to sleep on their stomach or side. However, many babies roll over after 6 months of age and do not require constant monitoring of sleep position. Ask your doctor for more information about positioning your baby for sleep.
Other factors that may help reduce SIDS risk include:
- Provide a firm crib mattress.
- Breastfeed your baby.
- Do not place blankets, a comforter, pillow, or sheepskin under your baby.
- Do not let your baby sleep on a waterbed.
- Remove soft, stuffed toys and loose bedding from the sleep area.
- Do not cover your baby's head or face.
- Have your baby sleep in the same room as you do, but do not share your bed.
- Keep the bedroom at a comfortable temperature (68-72°F [20-22.2°C]).
- Avoid overheating. Do not overdress your baby.
- Give your baby a pacifier during nap time and bedtime.
- While your baby is awake, place him on his stomach so that he can move his body.
- If you smoke, do not smoke in the house or around your baby. Ask your doctor about ways you can quit.
- Be sure that your baby gets routine medical care, including the recommended vaccines.
- Do not use cardiorespiratory monitors or other commercial devices that claim to reduce the risk of SIDS. There is no evidence that these devices are useful.
- Learn infant CPR.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.familydoctor.org
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca
Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca
American Academy of Pediatrics SIDS Task Force. The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk. Pediatrics. 2005;116:1245-1255.
Galland BC, et al. Prone versus supine sleep position: a review of the physiological studies in SIDS research. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002;38:332-338.
Hay WW. Current Consult Pediatrics. 17th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.
Hunt CE, Hauck FR. Sudden infant death syndrome. CMAJ. 2006;174:1861-1869.
Kleigman RM, Jensen HB, et al, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 11, 2013. Accessed February 18, 2013.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Nemours Kid's Health website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/sleep/sids.html. Updated October 2011. Accessed February 18, 2013.
10/23/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Blair P, Sidebotham P, et al. Hazardous cosleeping environments and risk factors amenable to change: case-control study of SIDS in south west England. BMJ. 2009;339:b3666.
11/14/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics. 2011;128(5):1030-1039.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/05/2014 -