(Renal Cell Carcinoma)
|Cancer Cell Growth|
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- Family history of certain hereditary forms of kidney cancer
- Age: 50 years or older
- Sex: male
- Certain occupational exposures (like asbestos and aniline) and tanning products
- Exposure to some toxins, such as astrolachia (an herb common in some Chinese herbal preparations)
- Balkan nephritis
- Chronic renal stones
- Phenacetin abuse
- Tuberous sclerosis—a hereditary condition that causes tumors to grow in many different organs, including angiomyolipomas of the kidney, a benign tumor
- Dialysis treatment
- Von Hippel Lindau syndrome—a syndrome associated with many types of cancer
- Blood in the urine
- Unexplained lower back pain or new pain elsewhere
- Shortness of breath or cough
- Lump in the belly
- Elevated blood pressure
- Unplanned, significant weight loss
- Unexplained fever
- Swelling of ankles, legs, and/or abdomen
- Blood and urine tests—to check kidney function or find substances that indicate kidney cancer may be present
- Bone scan—for this test, you receive a special radioactive material that specifically lights up bones that are undergoing an active process, such as tumor growth. Kidney cancer likes to spread to the bones. This test is often performed to ensure the bones are not involved by the cancer.
- Chest x-rays and abdomen x-rays—tests that use radiation to take pictures of structures inside the body
- IV pyelogram—an x-ray of the kidneys and ureters after injection of contrast dye into the blood
- Renal angiography—an x-ray of arteries that are leading to a possible kidney tumor
- CT scan—a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of the inside of the kidneys and the surrounding area
- MRI scan—a test that uses magnetic waves to make pictures of the inside of the kidneys and the surrounding area
- Renal ultrasound—a test that uses sound waves to examine the kidneys
- Laparoscopy—a thin, lighted tube inserted through a small incision in the abdomen to look at the kidney
- Cytoscopy—examination of the bladder, ureters, and kidneys via a thin tube inserted through the urethra
- Biopsy—removal of a sample of kidney tissue to test for cancer cells
- Radical nephrectomy—removal of the entire kidney, adrenal gland, and nearby fatty tissue and lymph nodes
- Partial nephrectomy—removal of the cancerous part of the kidney only, used to treat smaller tumors that have not spread locally.
- Removal of metastases—removal of cancerous tissue that has spread to other parts of the body, particularly when causing symptoms
Radiation Therapy (or Radiotherapy)
- External radiation therapy—radiation directed at the tumor from a source outside the body
- Everolimus (Zortress)
- Pazopanib (Votrient)
- Avoid using tobacco products.
- Avoid occupational exposures.
American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org
The Kidney Cancer Association http://www.kidneycancer.org
Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
All about kidney cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/kidneycancer/index. Accessed July 1, 2009.
Berkow R, Beers MH. The Merck Manual of Medical Information. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster; 2000.
Cashen A, Wildes T. The Washington Manual: Hematology and Oncology Subspeciality Consult. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.
Kidney (renal cell) cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/kidney. Accessed July 1, 2009.
Renal cell carcinoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated July 14, 2010. Accessed July 15, 2010.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 00/93/2012 -