- Transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma
- Squamous cell carcinoma
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Occupation due to exposure to certain substances:
- Rubber, leather, and textile workers
- Truck drivers
- Petroleum industry workers
- Chronic bladder inflammation or infection such as schistosomiasis, an infection caused by a parasitic worm
- Personal or family history of bladder cancer
- Chemotherapeutic drugs: cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide
- The use of pioglitazone, an anti-diabetic agent
- Exposure to arsenic
- Radiation treatment of the pelvis
- Bladder birth defects
- Chemicals such as nitrosamines and benzidine
- Urinary stones for many years
- In-dwelling catheter for many years
- Bladder diverticuli: an area of weakness in the bladder wall through which some of the lining of the bladder is forced out
- Metastasis from another cancer
- Blood in the urine
- Frequent urination, or feeling the need to urinate without being able
- Painful urination
- Lower back pain
- Weight loss, bone pain, or abdominal pain in advanced cases
- Your urine may need to be examined. This can be done with:
- Urine cytology
- Urine culture
- Your bladder and the surrounding area may need to be viewed. This can be done with:
- A sample of bladder tissue may need to be tested. This can be done with a biopsy.
- Stage 0: cancer cells are found only on the surface of the inner lining of the bladder
- Stage 1: cancer cells are found deep in the inner lining of the bladder; no lymph nodes are involved
- Stage 2: cancer cells have spread to the muscle of the bladder; no lymph nodes are involved
- Stage 3: cancer cells have spread through the muscular wall of the bladder to the layer of tissue surrounding the bladder OR possibly to the reproductive organs including the prostate glands; no lymph nodes are involved
- Stage 4: cancer cells extending outside the bladder to the wall of the abdomen or to the wall of the pelvis without lymph node involvement OR have spread to one or more lymph nodes and other parts of the body
- Transurethral resection—This is done for early stage or superficial bladder cancer. A cystoscope is placed into the bladder through the urethra. A small wire loop at the end of the cystoscope is used to remove cancer cells. Fulguration can be done during this procedure. It uses electrical current to burn away remaining cancer cells.
- Cystectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the bladder—This is done when bladder cancer is invasive. Segmental or partial cystectomy is the removal of part of the bladder. Radical cystectomy is the removal of the entire bladder and nearby lymph nodes. In men, the prostate is usually also removed. In women, the uterus, ovaries, part of the vagina, and the fallopian tubes might also be removed. A form of urinary diversion must be created to store the urine if the bladder is removed.
- External radiation therapy—Radiation is directed at the tumor from a source outside the body.
- Internal radiation therapy—Radioactive materials are placed near the cancer cells in the bladder through the urethra or through an incision in the abdomen.
Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy)
- If you smoke or use tobacco products, talk to your doctor about ways to quit.
- Avoid or minimize occupational exposure to certain chemicals; follow good work safety practices.
- Eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.
- Avoid excess intake of high fat or high cholesterol foods.
American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org
National Cancer Institute http://www.cancer.gov
BC Cancer Agency http://www.bccancer.bc.ca
Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca
Bladder cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/bladdercancer. Accessed June 11, 2015.
Bladder cancer. Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/bladder-cancer. Accessed June 11, 2015.
Torpy JM. Bladder cancer. JAMA. 2005;293(7):890. Available at: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/293/7/890. Accessed June 11, 2015.
What you need to know about bladder cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/wyntk/bladder. Accessed June 11, 2015.
7/21/2015 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Sun JW, Zhao LG, et al. Obesity and risk of bladder cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of 15 cohort studies. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 24;10(3).
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD
- Review Date: 06/2015 -
- Update Date: 07/21/2015 -