(MDS; Myelodysplasia; Preleukemia; Smoldering Leukemia; Subacute Leukemia)
|Location of Active Bone Marrow in an Adult|
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- Family members with MDS
- Age: 60 or older
- Sex: male
- Certain genetic syndromes:
- Exposure to large amounts of radiation
- Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene
- Exposure to pesticides
- Radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy treatment for cancer
- Typically, there are no symptoms in the early stages of MDS. Later stage symptoms may vary from person to person, depending on how serious the disease is. Later stage symptoms may include:
Signs of anemia due to underproduction or red blood cells include:
- Shortness of breath
- Pale skin
- Feeling weak and tired
- Congestive heart failure (in severe cases)
Neutropenia occurs when there are inadequate levels of white blood cells. White blood cells fight infection. Signs of this condition include:
- Frequent, unusual, or especially serious infections
Thrombocytopenia occurs when there are inadequate levels of platelets in the blood. Platelets stop bleeding by clotting the blood. Signs of thrombocytopenia include:
- Bleeding easily, especially from the nose and gums
- Bruising easily
- Other symptoms may include loss of appetite, weight loss, and feeling tired.
- Blood test to check your red and white blood cell counts and platelet counts and to check how the blood cells look.
- Bone marrow biopsy to check for MDS. A bone marrow biopsy is the removal of a sample of bone marrow for testing.
- Your doctor may also order other tests to rule out other conditions.
- Erythropoietin (EPO) is a growth factor that helps the bone marrow produce red blood cells.
- Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSF) are growth factors that help the bone marrow produce white blood cells. Pegfilgrastim (Neulasta) is a form of G-CSF that is longer acting.
- Oprelvekin (Neumega, interleukin-11, or IL-11) is a drug that helps the body produce platelets.
- Cytarabine and idarubicin
- Cytarabine and topotecan
- Cytarabine and fludarabine
- Decitabine (Dacogen)
- Azacitidine (Vidaza)
- Lenalidomide (Revlimid)
- Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)
Stem Cell Transplant
- Avoid exposure to hazardous chemicals such as benzene
- Don’t smoke or if you do smoke, quit
Reduce your risk for developing cancer:
- Eat a balanced, healthful diet.
- Stay active.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Avoid environmental and occupational risks.
American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org
Leukemia and Lymphoma Society http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org
Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation http://www.mds-foundation.org
Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplasia Association of Canada http://www.aamac.ca
Neutropenia Support Association http://www.neutropenia.ca
Ableoff M, ed. Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2005.
Ableoff M, ed. Clinical Oncology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2004.
Cancer Prevention page. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/ped%5F1.asp?sitearea=PED . Accessed September 28, 2005.
Detailed guide: myelodysplastic syndrome. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/CRI%5F2%5F3x.asp?dt=65 . Accessed April 2, 2009.
Frequently asked questions about MDS page. The Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation website. Available at: http://www.mds-foundation.org/pdf/CEL411%20Factsht%20v8.pdf . Accessed September 14, 2005.
Goldman L, ed. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company; 2004.
Hoffman R, Benz E, Shattil S, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2005.
Myelodysplastic syndrome. Dynamed website. Available at: http://www.dynamicmedical.com/dynamed.nsf?opendatabase . Accessed September 13, 2005.
Myelodysplastic syndromes: a review for patients, families, friends, and healthcare professionals. Patient information page. The Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation website. Available at: http://www.mds-foundation.org/patientinfo.htm . Accessed September 14, 2005.
Myelodysplastic syndromes facts & statistics page. Leukemia and Lymphoma Society website. Available at: http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/all%5Fpage?item%5Fid=55445 . Accessed September 22, 2005.
Myelodysplastic syndromes page. National Marrow Donor Program website. Available at: http://www.marrow.org/PATIENT/myelodysplastic%5Fsyndromes.html . Accessed September 22, 2005.
Myelodysplastic syndromes: treatment page. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/myelodysplastic . Accessed: September 22, 2005.
Overview: myelodysplastic syndrome page. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI%5F2%5F2%5F1x%5FWhat%5FAre%5FMyelodysplastic%5FSyndromes%5F65.asp?rnav=cri . Accessed September 22, 2005.
Understanding myelodysplastic syndromes: a patient handbook. Patient information page. The Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation website. Available at: http://www.mds-foundation.org/patientinfo.htm . Accessed September 14, 2005.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD
- Review Date: 12/2013 -
- Update Date: 01/13/2014 -