A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.

It is possible to develop testicular cancer with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing testicular cancer. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.

The most common risk factors, gender and age, cannot be changed. While testicular cancer is more common in men between the ages of 20-35 years old, it can occur in older men. Generally, risk decreases with age.

Other factors that may increase the chances of testicular cancer include:

  • Medical history:
    • Undescended testes—The testicles normally migrate from the abdomen to the scrotum before birth. Sometimes, boys are born with testicles that are still in the abdomen. This can be fixed with surgery.
    • Personal history of testicular cancer
    • HIV infection
  • Family history—Risk may be higher if testicular cancer involves a first-degree relative like a father or brother.
  • Genetic disorders:
  • Ethnicity—Testicular cancer is more common in Caucasian men who live in the US and Europe.

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